Ralph P. Gies

Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Biological Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. George G. Mallinson

Second Advisor

Dr. William C. Van Deventer

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


I. The Problem

Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of this investigation to undertake a field study in Athens Township, Calhoun County, State of Michigan in order to (1) determine the ecological factors necessary for maple sap production; (2) relate the extent to which the natural resource is being used; and (3) determine economic and social values to the syrup producers. The information was compiled through the sue of interviews, questionnaires, research, and participation in a community project.