David Lacy

Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Human Performance and Health Education


Health, Physical Education & Recreation

First Advisor

Dr. Mary L. Dawson

Second Advisor

Dr. Roger M. Zabik

Third Advisor

Dr. James B. Lewis

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The problem of this study was to compare the lower limb kinematics and EMG activity of three bicycle pedal designs. The pedals investigated were a flat pedal platform and two different clip-in pedal designs, float with friction (FF) and spring recentered float (SF). The FF pedals offered 8° of rotational float and the SF pedals offered 10° of rotational float and 3 mm of medial-lateral translation. Sixteen healthy male and female volunteers between the ages of 18 and 29 performed five complete cycles of motion, beginning and ending at ATP, at two cadences under each of the three pedal conditions. Pedal design produced significant differences in lower limb kinematics. Subjects displayed significantly larger ankle angles with SF pedals compared to flat pedals during push phase. FF pedals produced larger varus/valgus angles than flat pedals. Subjects displayed a varus angle throughout the entire crank cycle. No significant differences across muscles existed for the different pedal designs. Cadence, pedal design, and phase interact to influence the behavior of GAS and ATIB. ATIB activity was different among pedals at each cadence. FF and flat pedals produced larger EMG areas at 90 rpm, while SF pedals produced larger EMG area at 60 rpm.