Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Chemical and Paper Engineering


Paper Engineering, Chemical Engineering and Imaging

First Advisor

Dr. Dewei Qi

Second Advisor

Dr. Paul D. Fleming III

Third Advisor

Dr. David Peterson

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


In this research, the commercially available software called FLUENT is used to simulate and visualize behaviors of flow in a three-layer stratified headbox of a paper machine. A two-phase model, "volume of fluid", is employed to simulate turbulences in a free jet. The information obtained from the simulations, in terms of velocity profiles, Reynolds stress, turbulent kinetic energy, and macro scale of turbulence, are used to assess and characterize the effect of free jet length, vane length, vane thickness, nozzle angle, and slice opening on fiber layer mixing. Importantly, the simulation results demonstrated that the macro scale of turbulence in the free jet is a critical parameter to evaluate and optimize the degree of fiber layer mixing and forming. In addition, air entrainment was observed in the three dimensional simulations. It is expected that the vane and free jet lengths are the keys of layer mixing in stratified headbox. In addition, it is better for both vane and free jet lengths to be adjustable during operation.