Dale H. Poel

Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Political Science

First Advisor

Dr. Richard McAnaw

Second Advisor

Dr. William Ritchie

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access



Norton Long has stated that "...under the deceptive uniformity of an apparently similar legal structure, a wide range of actual variance appears in the 'constitutions' of our local government."1 The concern of this study is one part of that wide range of variance: the private and/or informal sessions held by councils in Michigan council-manager cities. These sessions are part of that variance which, if not understood, must lead to tentativeness and uncertainty in generalizations on the local government process. They would include any meetings of the council and manager other than the formal public meeting. Instances in which the council meets informally without the manager are rare. Such labels as the "rehearsal," warm-up session, work shop, or study session have been given these meetings.