Date of Award
Master of Arts
Dr. Douglas A. Johnson
Dr. Alyce M. Dickinson,
Dr. Heather M. McGee
Creativity, motivation, overjustification effect, rewards, performance
Masters Thesis-Open Access
Despite many decades of debate, the question of whether or not extrinsic motivation is detrimental to intrinsic motivation and creativity continues to spark discussion among professionals (Cameron & Pierce, 1994). This is an important issue for business owners who do not want to stifle creativity and intrinsic motivation in an effort to increase productivity. Even though many authors have labelled extrinsic motivation as archaic and harmful (Deci, 1971; Kohn, 1993; Pink, 2009), the available empirical evidence does not match such levels of condemnation. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of several interventions (performance-contingent money, performance-contingent praise, and performance-contingent money plus praise) in increasing creativity. Two within-subject multiple reversal designs were used to examine the impact that these interventions had on 27 college students. A hybrid within subject and between group analysis was carried out. The within subject analysis involved visual inspection of graphs and showed a slight downward trend across all phases, beginning with the first session. A two-factor ANCOVA showed that neither money nor praise increased creative performance. The results contradicted both the overjustification effect and behavioral accounts regarding the impact on external rewards, although methodological concerns need to be resolved before this statement can be made with confidence.
Akpapuna, Merrilyn, "Examination of the Impact of Contingent Praise and Monetary Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation and Creative Performance" (2020). Master's Theses. 5150.