Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Matthew Higgins

Second Advisor

Dr. Sissay Asefa

Third Advisor

Dr. Donald J. Meyer


Population, labor force, age distribution, child labor, population aging

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Baby boom and population aging are the main features of the world population that are leading to child and elderly people in the labor force. Categorizing the world into low and high-income countries, the baby boom and child labor can be found in low-income countries, while population aging and elderly people in the labor force can be found in high-income countries. The cause of these features is declining rates of population and labor force ages 15-64, which is the most productive and active proportion. Health expenditures is one of the main factors that is associated with undesired trends of population and labor force through the high correlation with the rates of fertility, birth, death, and mortality. Population and labor force can be controlled by these rates and these rates can be controlled by health expenditures. Therefore, the allocation of health expenditures negatively influences population and labor force participation rates. In my thesis, I am going to investigate the trends of population and labor force participation rates in low-income and high-income countries over the period 1996-2010. The investigation will be done by using the statistics that are related to population and labor force such as the rates of population ages 0-14, ages 15-64, and ages 65+, and the rates of labor force in terms of ages and gender.