Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. Douglas Johnson

Second Advisor

Dr Ron van Houten

Third Advisor

Dr. Jonathan Baker


Fluency, SAFMEDS, high-p, flashcards, training

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Precision teaching has led to successful outcomes in both training and education. Past research has shown that by using flashcard techniques such as SAFMEDS in ratebuilding exercises, one can expect expert levels of performance and retention of learned material by practicing for a minute a day. Fluency training using SAFMEDS could prove invaluable in businesses that wish to train their employees using cost and time efficient methods. However, recent research has shown that the SAFMEDS sequence may not quickly build accurate rates of responding in earlier sessions, or reliably lead to high levels of retention. High probability (high-p) sequences can lead to reduced latencies to respond, resistance to extinction, and retention. Using high-p sequencing in SAFMEDS may increase performance and retention. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of SAFMEDS, high-p SAFMEDS, and self-study on performance and retention using flashcards. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of thirty counterbalanced sequences. The results showed that high-p SAFMEDS led to higher retention and performance in posttests than in SAFMEDS. However, posttests were not significantly different and self-study led to the highest retention and performance during sessions. Additional research is needed to determine a more efficient flashcard training method. Suggestions to improve the SAFMEDS methodology are discussed.