Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Geological and Environmental Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Matt Reeves

Second Advisor

Dr. R. V. Krishnamurthy

Third Advisor

Dr. Daniel Cassidy


Surfacewater, capture, roadsalt, watershed, transport

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The Spring Valley sub-watershed is located within the Kalamazoo Township contains Spring Valley Lake, a man-made impoundment that ultimately discharges into the Kalamazoo River. Elevated chloride levels in pumped water from the Kalamazoo Station 14 municipal wellfield, located along the shoreline of Spring Valley Lake, has resulted in less than ideal corrosivity values for the water distribution system. Specific project objectives include: (1) identifying the cause of elevated chloride, (2) assessing surface water capture by the Station 14 wellfield, and (3) characterizing of water quality in Spring Valley Lake. Monitoring along a series of sampling transects spanning the sub-watershed, focused stormwater sampling, and deployment of field conductivity probes, were used to study the timing and quantify fluxes of major ions through the sub-watershed. These data conclusively demonstrate that winter application of road salts is the primary source of chloride in the sub-watershed. Vertical hydraulic gradients indicate aquifer recharge from the lake. Surface water capture by the wells is quantified using three methods: chloride mass balance, stable isotope mixing model, and water balance. These estimates provide a