Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science in Engineering


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

First Advisor

Tianshu Liu, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Javier Montefort, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

William Liou, Ph.D.


Heat transfer, impinging jet, low-speed jet, skin friction, temperature sensitive paint

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Temperature sensitive paint (TSP) is used to analyze surface flow structures driven by a jet impinging on a heated steel sheet. Temperature and Nusselt number images are calculated from CCD images of the TSP surface. TSP calibration is discussed. Skin friction data is obtained from the temperature images.

Data is collected for metal and 3D-printed plastic nozzles of varying shape and size at one or two jet airspeeds depending on the nozzle. For the circular nozzles, data is collected for four Reynolds numbers at impinging angles of 90, 70, and 50 degrees. For the elliptical nozzles and the star-shaped nozzle, data is collected at two Reynolds numbers and normal impingement. For the pentagon nozzle, data is collected at one Reynolds number and normal impingement.

Secondary Nusselt number peaks appear in the mainstream flow from obliquely impinging circular nozzles. A secondary skin friction minimum appears in the normally impinging skin friction data from the larger of the circular nozzles.