Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Michelle Hrivnyak, Ph.D.

Second Advisor

Britt Hartenberger, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Michael Nassaney, Ph.D.


Archaeology, cemetery, gravestone, Hungarian-American, Hungary, South Bend

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Cemeteries and their associated grave markers have been repeatedly identified as a measure of cultural complexity and change in archaeology site studies. Cultural patterns are often revealed through the ritual materials of mourning and death to reflect notable behavior of the living, and these expressions radically differ depending on social status and identity. The primary objective of this study is to collect grave marker evidence and establish a database for Sacred Heart Hungarian Cemetery in South Bend, Indiana. The collection and analysis of attributes from grave markers captures when one ethnic Hungarian-American group’s expression of identity began to change by means of shifting language. An archaeology examination of Magyar grave markers, from when the cemetery was established in 1912 to the present, highlights how Hungarian-Americans expressed their ethnic heritage within a mortuary setting and when assimilation into the larger American culture is reflected.

Powell_stone_data1.xlsx (17773 kB)
Gravestone Data