Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Civil and Construction Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Valerian Kwigizile

Second Advisor

Dr. Jun-Seok Oh

Third Advisor

Dr. Osama Abudayyeh


Pedestrian, bicycle, crashes, countermeasures, safety

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Vulnerable road users such as pedestrian and bicyclists are more likely to sustain a severe injury when they are involved in a crash with motor vehicles. Identifying the causes of crashes involving pedestrians and bicyclists is essential to reducing the number and the severity of such crashes. This study identified the causes and risk behaviors associated with pedestrian and bicycle crashes in Michigan by reviewing selected individual crash report (i.e., UD-10). Crash reports for all pedestrian and bicycle fatal crashes (K) and a sample of incapacitating injury crashes (A) from 2010 to 2014 were reviewed and typed individually using the Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT). The results of analysis revealed the risk behaviors and causes of pedestrian and bicycle crashes in Michigan. Six risk behavior groups and causes for pedestrian crashes included: failing to yield/disregard traffic control by pedestrian or driver, pedestrian in roadway, pedestrian near vehicle, pedestrian walking along the roadway, loss of control, and other or unknown. Similarly, five risk behavior groups and causes for bicycle crashes were identified, including: failing to yield/disregard traffic control by cyclist or driver, overtaking, loss of control/turning error, cyclist rode wrong way, and other or unknown. Additionally, the study investigated the roadway characteristics and environmental characteristics associated with the most prevalent causes and risk behaviors. In conclusion, the study recommended a list of engineering, enforcement, and education and outreach countermeasures for each risk behavior group. The results of this study will assist the practitioners in identifying the causes of pedestrian and bicycle crashes and selecting the appropriate countermeasures in order to reduce the number and severity of those crashes in Michigan.