Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts



First Advisor

Dr. William Cremin

Second Advisor

Dr. Elizabeth Garland

Third Advisor

Dr. Robert Sundick

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Lithic debitage from Late Woodland sites in the Lower Kalamazoo River Valley were examined for identifiable raw material. These data were analyzed for their relationships with source areas from throughout the Midwest region. The presence of exotic raw material in archaeological sites was then compared to social interaction patterns of the Early Allegan, Late Allegan, and Upper Mississippian traditions in the region.

Exotic raw material data suggest that a pattern of exchange and social interaction existed throughout the Late Woodland period. This pattern appears to have fluctuated in intensity through time. A decrease in social interaction is evident during the Late Allegan Phase, followed by a resurgence of activity with the introduction of the Upper Mississippian culture. This pattern of exchange of lithic raw material does not coincide with the interaction patterns recorded for ceramic data at the same time. Ceramic variability reflects increased social interaction during the Late Allegan Phase.