Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Geological and Environmental Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Ronald Chase

Second Advisor

Dr. Gerry Clarkson

Third Advisor

Dr. Richard Passero

Fourth Advisor

Dr. William Sauck

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Fractures were recorded and measured at seven southwest Michigan glacial till locations to identify geometry and spacing. Strong preferred orientations were shown at azimuths of 110° and 140° for two sites, and at azimuths of 85°, 110°, and 135°, and at 44° and 167° for two sites. Several sites had numerous oblique fractures.

Thirty-eight azimuthal Wenner arrays and four Schlumberger surveys show apparent resistivities vary widely with depth of penetration and material composition. Eleven percent of azimuthal surveys show an elliptical data array coinciding with preferred orientation of an adjacent fracture set. The relationship between azimuthal survey and fractures is due to the paradox of anisotropy.

Successful correlations were not always accomplished due to anthromorphic structures such as buried cables or sewer systems. Dry conditions during part of the work decreased electrode contact and increased apparent resistivity values, and the paradox of anistropy did not apply when overburden was greater than roughly five times the "a" spacing used.

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Geology Commons