Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Chemical and Paper Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Nicholas G. Triantafillopoulos

Second Advisor

Dr. David K. Peterson

Third Advisor

Dr. Raja Aravamuthan

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The successful operation of the wet end in a paper machine is highly dependent on the approach piping system. Sheet basis weight stability and ease of making wet end adjustments are greatly impaired by improperly designed approach piping systems. Most problems in headbox approach piping occur when the flow splits, combines, and passes through elbows.

Elbows create cross flows, flow separation, and eddies, and play an important role in the uniform and stable delivery of the pulp into the headbox. The effect due to an elbow lasts for a considerable distance downstream of the elbow and is severe when two elbows are in the system. Although elbows are commonly used in practice, many questions regarding their optimum arrangement still remain unanswered. The present study gave answers for the optimum arrangement of elbows and provides a convenient and effective guide to improve the design of the approach piping system.