The exploitation of natural resources and the associated marginalization of indigenous occupants of areas with such endowments continue to act as major driving forces for conflicts around the world, especially in Africa. In Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region, the major triggers of resource-based violent conflicts have been the subject matter of many academics and policy analysts. With the introduction of several peace strategies especially the Federal Government of Nigeria’s Amnesty Program notwithstanding, pockets of violent activities have generated questions as to the sustainability of the program. This study examines the sustainability of the Federal Government’s Amnesty Program in the Niger Delta Region. The main objective is to provide empirical evaluation of the program in the light of its strategy to deliver peace to the region, not only in the short-term but also in the long-term. Consequently, relying on the philosophy of the relative deprivation theory, descriptive and Chi-Square (χ2) statistical tools, the study has revealed that amnesty does not address the issues that have underpinned the genesis of violent agitations in the pre-amnesty era. As a result, this amnesty as a peace strategy is not sustainable. Hence, the inability to address issues such as adverse human development, inadequate infrastructure, environmental degradation and poverty among others strongly undermines the Amnesty program as a viable peace strategy. Given these findings, the study suggests a broad-based, multi-stakeholder approach that draws on private sector resources and competence in order to sustain the gains of the amnesty program if it is to bring about lasting peace in the region.
Raimi, Lasisi; Bieh, Nwoke N.; and Zorbari, Kidi
"In Search of Lasting Calmness: How Sustainable is the Federal Government’s Amnesty Program as a Peace Strategy in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria?,"
International Journal of African Development: Vol. 4:
2, Article 7.
Available at: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/ijad/vol4/iss2/7