Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Science


Geological and Environmental Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. William B. Harrison III

Second Advisor

Dr. John D. Grace

Third Advisor

Dr. W. Thomas Straw

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


The Upper Keweenawan Jacobsville Formation source areas were mixed source terranes with dominant terrane types changing regionally in relative abundances of sediment contribution. Dominant source terranes were older sediments, including a weathered soil zone, Upper Keweenawan Freda Sandstone and other recycled sandstones; plutonic Precambrian basement rocks;. Middle Keweenawan Portage Lake Volcanics; and the chlorite to staurolite grade metamorphic rocks and iron ranges of Michigan’s upper peninsula.

Depositional environments of the formation's four facies types range from fluvial to deltaic/lacustrine. Sediments were in transport for a short distance, resulting in grain freshness and angularity, moderate sorting and preservation of unstable sediments. Rapid erosion and deposition caused rock immaturity, an abundance of fresh, coarse feldspars and a wide range of alteration in a single species of feldspar. Two major basins of deposition were partially separated by a plutonic to metamorphic terrane highland. Major source areas were to the southeast of the western end of the outcrop belt and to the south of the eastern two-thirds of the outcrop belt.

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Geology Commons