Date of Award
Master of Arts
Educational Leadership, Research and Technology
Dr. George G. Mallinson
Masters Thesis-Open Access
The Problem and Its Background
The Importance of Arithmetic
Man, since ancient times, has found a need for the use of numbers. This need started with simple numeration of quantities in daily life, and developed gradually to the complex use of arithmetic in trade and exchange. In the simplest form of family life, the number sense was exhibited in counting members of the family, years in one's life, or articles in one's possession. But as a family contacted other groups, and simple exchange took place, a gradual increase in need for numbers resulted in greater use of systems for counting. As Smith1 states, with the development of trade wealth increased, governments sprang up, and coinage became necessary to facilitate exchange. Consequently, a more complex use of numbers was gradually motivated and encouraged.
Gates, Rena May, "An Experimental Study of the Relative Effectiveness of Drill and Incidental Teaching in the Learning of the Multiplication Tables" (1951). Master's Theses. 5082.