Date of Award


Degree Name

Master of Arts


Educational Leadership, Research and Technology


Educational Studies

First Advisor

Dr. George G. Mallinson

Access Setting

Masters Thesis-Open Access


Chapter I

The Problem and Its Background

The Importance of Arithmetic

Man, since ancient times, has found a need for the use of numbers. This need started with simple numeration of quantities in daily life, and developed gradually to the complex use of arithmetic in trade and exchange. In the simplest form of family life, the number sense was exhibited in counting members of the family, years in one's life, or articles in one's possession. But as a family contacted other groups, and simple exchange took place, a gradual increase in need for numbers resulted in greater use of systems for counting. As Smith1 states, with the development of trade wealth increased, governments sprang up, and coinage became necessary to facilitate exchange. Consequently, a more complex use of numbers was gradually motivated and encouraged.


From 1939 to the early 1950's, Western offered graduate courses in Kalamazoo in conjunction with the University of Michigan. All degrees were awarded by the University of Michigan.