This study examines the interacting effects of race and sex on police use of force. Survey data drawn from the Police-Public Contact Survey were used to conduct a binary logistic regression to assess effects of different configurations of self-reported race and sex identities, respondents age, and absence of deference to authority on self-reported police use or threatened use of force in interactions with police officers. Results indicate that the multiplicative effect of respondents’ race and sex overall, had a statistically significant relationship with the likelihood of reporting police use or threatened use of force in police-public contacts. Additionally, age, overall, was found to have a statistically significant relationship with police use of force. Further, respondents who reported displaying insufficient deference, were more likely to report police use or threatened use of force in their interactions with police than those who did not. Limitations are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.
Sawyer, Viola L.
"The Effect of Respondent Race and Sex on Police Use or Threatened Use of Force,"
The Hilltop Review: Vol. 12
, Article 3.
Available at: https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/hilltopreview/vol12/iss2/3