Credentials Display

Peñafrancia E. Ching, MCD, OTRP; Treisha Naedine H. Santos, OTRP; Lenin C. Grajo, PhD, EdM, OTR/L; Maria Concepcion C. Cabatan, PhD; Anna Liza Tan Pascual, MRS, OTRP


Background: Adult functional literacy ensures adequate and safe engagement in daily activities. It is assessed through the Inventory of Reading Occupations-Adult (IRO-A). The instrument underwent translation with cultural adaptation and content validation to ensure relevance to the Filipino context.

Method: The translation and cultural adaptation of the IRO-A to Filipino (Fil IRO-A) was guided by the process proposed by two international guidelines for cross-cultural adaptations that involves (a) forward translation and synthesis, (b) back translation, and (c) pre-panel review of the adaptation to the Filipino context. The Fil IRO-A also underwent content validation by seven experts. Item and scale content validity indices (I-CVI/S-CVI) were calculated. Qualitative feedback was summarized.

Results: Eighteen out of the 22 items were further revised after the initial translation to consider the original construct, appropriateness to the Filipino culture, and comprehensibility to the target audience. Content experts rated 15 items (68%) as acceptable to highly relevant and seven items (32%) as less relevant. The probability of chance agreement for most of the items is small (.008 – 0.164). Nineteen of the 22 items were good to excellent using the kappa values. No items were discarded. Nine were retained while 13 were further revised.

Conclusion: Experts agree that the Filipino IRO-A is valid for assessing the functional literacy of Filipino adults. Further validation study is needed to assess its use in determining reading participation.


The authors declare that they have no competing financial, professional, or personal interest that might have influenced the performance or presentation of the work described in this manuscript.