Background: Visual-spatial and visual-motor perceptual difficulties contribute to school-aged learning problems. Hence, a need exists to address children’s visual-spatial and visual-motor perceptual difficulties as early as possible in the child’s school career. Thus, this study reports on the evaluation of the Anker Bilateral Spatial System’s (ABSS) effectiveness in remediating primary school children’s perceptual difficulties.

Method: Thirty-one children (17 boys and 14 girls) aged 6 to 12 years who had been identified by their classroom teacher as having observable visual-spatial and visual-motor perceptual difficulties participated in a 10-week pre/posttest intervention study. The study’s pre/posttest assessments included the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), the Spatial Awareness Skills Program Test (SASP), and two subscales of the School Function Assessment (SFA).

Results: Paired t-test statistics were calculated on the pre/post intervention scores. Paired t-test statistics calculated (p = .05) that significant change had occurred in the writing speed (t = -3.978, p < .001).

Conclusion: Given that the study’s Year 1 students made progress in more areas of remediation than did any other year level, it is evident that the ABSS is particularly effective with this year group.


Dr. Janet Richmond is currently a lecturer at Edith Cowan University in occupational therapy in the School of Exercise and Health Sciences. Dr. Richmond’s research interests are visual-perceptual development, intervention and remediation in children and adults, attention and cognitive disorders, and aging and disability. She has published two book chapters and additional articles related to her areas of research.

Dr. Myra Taylor is a seasoned Research Fellow currently working in Edith Cowan University’s Lifespan Resilience Research Group in the School of Psychology and Social Science. Dr. Taylor’s research interests include infant and child development; child and adolescent attentional, emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders; family resilience; antisociality; adolescent and youth street violence; and criminal offending. She has published a number of books, book chapters, and articles in these and related areas.

Ms. Sarah Evans is an occupational therapist who has been working in pediatrics for seven years. She works mostly with primary school children and is passionate about helping each child reach their potential. Ms. Evans understands the importance of evidence-based practice and fervently supports research that may benefit her clients.