Credentials Display

Diane M. Long, Ed.D., MOTR/L
James Conklin, Ph.D.


Background: The purpose of the study was to describe scores achieved by typical second-grade students on the Evaluation Tool of Children’s Handwriting – Manuscript and to compare scores with teacher perceptions.

Method: As part of a larger study, the ETCH-M was administered to 74 second-grade students. Teachers scored classroom samples of handwriting assignments using a researcher-developed scale and scores were compared to ETCH-M scores to determine cutoff values for good versus poor handwriting.

Results: Mean scores for total word legibility, total letter legibility, and total numeral legibility were 88.82%, 84.30%, and 89.26%, respectively. Cutoff scores below 82% for word legibility and 77% for letter legibility for second-grade students based on teacher perceptions of below average handwriting are cautiously suggested. Research with a larger dataset is needed. Boys scored significantly lower on the ETCH-M and this finding warrants further research.

Conclusion: The findings add to the limited body of information about the psychometric properties of the ETCH-M and the normative performance of typical second-grade students.


The authors report that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose.