Credentials Display

Chia-Yang Chiang, OTD, OTR/L

Tsu-Hsin Howe, PhD, OTR, FAOTA


Exploring and facilitating the transition process from school to employment for young adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), especially those still in the school system, has now become an important concern for researchers, educators, and service providers working in this area. The Bridge to the Future (BTTF) Frame of Reference offers a new approach to facilitate the school-to-work transition for secondary school students with IDD in a self-contained classroom setting by adopting the Social Cognitive Career Theory and Self-Determination Theory as its main theoretical foundation. The BTTF Frame of Reference was developed for use by the team of transdisciplinary school professionals. It aims to facilitate students’ learning in the area of career exploration, goal setting, and work-related skills, as well as to improve students’ self-efficacy and self-determination skills. The purpose of the BTTF Frame of Reference is to provide guidelines to teach students with IDD vocational skills as well as other life skills, including ADLs, IADLs, and community participation, and to increase students’ readiness for transition through engaging them in career exploration activities.


The authors declare that they have no competing financial, professional, or personal interest that might have influenced the performance or presentation of the work described in this manuscript.