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Emotional adjustment seems to be a significant factor to consider in the diagnosis and treatment of reading difficulties. This statement is substantiated by a number of studies which have been made to investigate the incidence of emotional disturbances in retarded readers. Misseldine (18) studied the emotional background of thirty children with reading disabilities and concluded that practically all of the children tested were "insecure," "restless," and "emotionally ill." A study by Ellis (9) led him to conclude that there are emotional factors in many, if not all, cases of reading disability. Sylvester and Kunst (23) reported that all pupils with reading difficulties have emotional problems. Other investigators are more conservative in their estimates of the incidence of emotional disturbances. For example, Witty (24) indicated 52% and Challman (7) and Gates (14) each stated 75%. Regardless of variance, all studies suggest that emotional disturbance is a significant factor which the reading therapist must consider. Therefore, it may be inferred that an understanding of emotion as a behavioral mechanism is of real value to the prospective reading clinician. Since emotion is a relatively broad subject, this paper will be limited to a discussion of one aspect of emotion, anxiety, and its effects on learning. The study of this topic appears to be a fruitful venture for in the final analysis all human behavior can be seen as direct or indirect attempts to cope with anxiety.

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