In every classroom there are pupils who fail to make satisfactory progress in their language development. Some youngsters do poorly in reading while others are unable to spell or write effectively. The pupil who continually performs at a sub-standard level of accomplishment in reading and spelling is often looked upon as being either "stupid" or lazy by his teacher. Today it is not uncommon to find youngsters being labelled in this manner.
Govatos, L. A. (1960). The Use of Diagnostic Procedures in Assessing an Educational Problem. Reading Horizons, 1 (2). Retrieved from https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/reading_horizons/vol1/iss2/3