An extraneous-loaded test is one which tests something other than or more than what the exam purports to test. A pupil's score on an extraneous-loaded test is unduly inflated or deflated because it allows him to bring to the testing situation data (i.e., experiences and previous learnings) which are unrelated to the test but which "help him out" (so the pupil thinks) with the answers. For example, if a student figures out the correct answer to a question in an objective reading comprehension test by using the process of elimination, then that question does not test reading comprehension. Instead, it reveals the pupil's use of logic, which is beside the point. An extraneous- free test is a culture-free test and more. It excludes everything which the child brings to the testing situation that can vitiate the test score via his use of external knowledge. For example, if a pupil is being tested in his knowledge of subject A and he can exploit only his knowledge of subject A to get the answers correct, he is taking an extraneous-free test. But if he applies his knowledge of subject B, the exam becomes extraneous-loaded. While it is true that not all extraneous- free tests are good, it is also true that all extraneous-loaded tests are bad. Any test is bad if it does not test only what it is supposed to.
Axelrod, J. (1974). Reading and Extraneous-Free Tests. Reading Horizons, 14 (3). Retrieved from https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/reading_horizons/vol14/iss3/3