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Johnny's learning problems have troubled his parents and haunted his teachers since the first group of students met in the pervasive "little red schoolhouse." Because of Johnny's academic inadequacies, his teachers are admonished by public officials; teachers censure Johnny's parents; Johnny's parents criticize his lack of motivation, capability or interest; and Johnny, through his frustrations, condemns all society for its insensitivity and lack of understanding. This description includes the Johnny who is black. This Johnny responds to his society in a similar way, but his problems are more intense. His relationships with his environment are more complex. His learning problems are more confounding. (Ashmore, Hayakawa, Reissman, Woodson)

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