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Studies of eye movement during reading indicate faulty directional habits of children who display the following symptoms: repetition of words, omission of words, transposition of words, skipping lines of print, and jerky oral reading. The child's inability to follow a line of print from left to right can be caused chiefly by a lack of adequate experiential background. There may be little in the child's previous experiences to prepare him for this new, and for him, different situation. The child's concepts of up and down, left and right may have been inadequately developed. Incorrect responses may have been reinforced and faulty habits might have been established. Relearning must occur and new and correct habits must be implemented. When children begin to read, they must be taught correct directional orientation. They should be assisted to learn that words are to be observed from left to right and lines of print are to be read from left to right. The teacher must make certain that these directional habits are firmly established at the start of the reading process.

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