Reading expectancy formulae and intelligence tests are two instruments with which the reading teacher is very familiar. However, the designs of both reading expectancy formulae and intelligence tests have incorporated various strengths and limitations into each. When the two are combined to determine a child's level of expectancy, much distortion in prediction may occur if careful selection and evaluation of these instruments are not executed. A critical look at the popular reading expectancy formulae and related use of intelligence tests will show that there are beneficial uses of reading expectancy formula in general but that there are also valid reasons which substantiate the need for caution when dealing with these formulae.
Hooper, B. (1978). Reading Expectancy Formulae--Strengths and Limitations to be Considered. Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts, 18 (2). Retrieved from https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/reading_horizons/vol18/iss2/9