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Much emotional heat has been generated during the past three decades over the consequences of "direct," "authoritarian," "didactic," "rigid," and "repetitive drill" instruction. These terms and other synonyms have assumed in some quarters the emotive equivalent of the terms "traitor," "incompetent," and "sadist." Recent leaders in education have generated numerous alternatives to the traditional teaching patterns suggested by the supposedly odious terms. These alternatives have included: inquiry, discovery, interest centers, trade-book reading programs, and such organizational arrangements as open-concept rooms and so-called "free" schools. Work by Jerome S. Bruner (1966) for instance, has caused us to shift our concern from the memorization of facts to the discovery of principles. This emerging approach to education has had its inevitable effects upon the teaching of reading.

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