The study, we should emphasize, was exploratory in nature. Its purpose was to generate tentative insights into the effects of traditional and competency-based reading education so that relationships between the two instructional approaches could be better understood and lead to further hypothesis making and empirical verification.
Vacca, R. T., & Johns, J. L. (1980). How Preservice Teachers Perceive Traditional and Competency-Based Reading Education. Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts, 21 (1). Retrieved from https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/reading_horizons/vol21/iss1/6