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A growing number of reading educators are adjusting the primary focus of their attention from learner performance to learner competence. The rationale of this shift from a product to a process orientation lies in the assumption that even the youngest humans are able to observe, categorize, associate, hypothesize, revise, integrate information, and solve problems. These learning strategies enable humans not only to think and to talk, but also to become literate. Oral language and reading are viewed, therefore, as constructive processes, reflective of the particular culture which gives rise to them. These processes develop in response to meaningful experiences, and they in turn aid in the cultivation of the learning strategies. With its roots in psycholinguistics, this perspective has gained acceptance at national levels.

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