There is general agreement that it is not possible within the constraints of undergraduate programs and the limited time frame for preservice teaching experience to train highly professional teachers before the first year of teaching (McDonald, 1980). Thus, professional education should be considered a continuous process (Feiman-Nemser, 1983).
Grindler, M. (1989). Assistance Models in Reading Instruction. Reading Horizons: A Journal of Literacy and Language Arts, 30 (1). Retrieved from https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/reading_horizons/vol30/iss1/2