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The Reading Recovery program was developed in New Zealand to answer the question how can an education system provide a second chance for young children who have not re sponded to the literacy programme in their first year of instruc tion at school? (It is not a program for teaching beginning reading to 80-90% of school children.) There are four aspects to the program: 1) the teaching of children, 2) the training of teachers, 3) the training of teacher leaders, and 4) implement ing the program in an education system and coordinating the long-term prevention strategy. Teachers help children from the lower end of the achievement distribution to participate at or near an average level in their classrooms. Research has demonstrated that the procedures work with children who differ markedly in their prior experience and in their ways of respond ing (Clay, 1982, 1987, 1990, 1991).

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