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Increasing presence of English-as-a-second-language (ESL) learners in United States schools creates more and more need for all teachers, including mainstream teachers, reading teachers, and other specialists, to have a firm understanding of some basic principles and beliefs about how individuals learn a second language. Teachers who have been trained in foreign-language education, bilingual education, ESL education, and related fields — such as linguistics — usually have learned about predominant second-language-learning theories and their correlated instructional implications.

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