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Increasingly, researchers are calling for four strands to comprise the elementary school vocabulary program: direct instruction in the meanings of individual words, the improvement of students' independent word learning strategies, motivation for word learning, and many opportunities for wide reading (Irvin, 1990; Graves, 1995). Strategies for independent word learning are particularly important because wide reading offers students the opportunity to learn as many as 3,000 word per year if they can successfully apply structural analysis and contextual analysis to the new words they encounter (Anderson, 1995).

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