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Eighty students who spoke Spanish at home were randomly assigned one of four teachers. Two of the teachers used a great deal of music in their classrooms while the other two did not. The students and their teachers remained together for two years - kindergarten and first grade. Literacy achievement data suggests that music had a positive effect on oral language and reading scores. Differences focused on the use of music for morning opening, music and signing while working with words, and the use of music during listening stations.

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