This study examined the development of pedagogical knowledge of preservice and inservice teachers as they implemented newly learned assessment and instructional strategies with at-risk readers in clinical settings. The preservice teachers worked in pairs to tutor children during the regular semester at a university reading clinic; the inservice teachers worked for four days a week for six weeks in a special reading academy. Four stages of development emerged from the examination of the reflective responses of teachers that they wrote after each tutoring sessions with the at-risk readers. The stages identified were: novice, advance beginner, competent, and proficient.
Allen, D. D., & Swearingen, R. A. (2002). Development of Pedagogical Knowledge Related to Teaching At-Risk Students: How Do Inservice Teachers and Preservice Teachers Compare?. Reading Horizons, 43 (1). Retrieved from https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/reading_horizons/vol43/iss1/7