Because some basal reader teachers' guides recommend written pre-reading purposes while others suggest only oral ones, the major purpose of this study was to compare the comprehension of stories in the basal reader using three pre-reading purpose treatments: (1) written, (2) oral, and (3) no purpose (control).
Hawes, K. S., & Schell, L. M. (1987). Teacher-Set Pre-Reading Purposes and Comprehension. Reading Horizons, 27 (3). Retrieved from http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/reading_horizons/vol27/iss3/2