Two studies were conducted to ascertain whether or not the embodiment principle of the Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning would apply to student’s use of cameras in synchronous online instruction. Results from a cross sectional dataset indicate that students who utilize their cameras report more positive outcomes than students who do not utilize their cameras. Results from a quasi-experimental design indicate that students do not report any significant differences between experiencing classes where their peers keep their cameras-on or when their peers keep their cameras-off.



Author ORCID Identifier

Zac D. Johnson: 0000-0003-3755-7323